A hydrocyclone is device that removes large cutting from the whole mud cleaning system. The desander should be located next of the shale shakers and degassers, but before the desilters or mud cleaners. A volume of mud is pumped into the wide top section of the hydrocylone at an angle roughly tangent to its girth. As the fluid flows around and slowly down the inside of the cone shape, solids are separated from the liquid by cycleclone forces. The solids continue around and down until they exit the bottom of the hydrocyclone (with some with small amounts of liquid) and are dispose. The cleaner and light density liquid mud up go through a vortex in the center of the hydrocyclone, exits through piping at the top of the hydrocyclone and is then flow to the mud tanks and the next mud-cleaning device, usually a desilter. Different size desander and desilter cones are functionally same, with the size of the cone determining the size of debris the device removes from the mud system.
During the operation of the drilling, the body of hydrocyclone is desander and desilter. The size of the bore for desander is 100 mm and more and use filter 44-74 micron and above of the sand. The size of the bore for desilter is less than 100mm for filter the 15 micron above. Desander is use mainly on second steps of drilling fluid purification. Desilter is use mainly on third step of drilling fluid purification.
Hydrocyclone is use for purification of the drilling fluid to ensure the performance in purification. As part of the purification of the fluid use other machinery like shale shaker with filter screen and decanter centrifuge operate with high centrifugal force, all comes together with result the removal of solid in drilling fluid within 2 micron.
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